Fransiz ressam Pierre-Joseph Redoute'un
(1759-1840) "Les Roses" kitabindan guller.
| The Rose |
The Rose is the flowering shrub of the genus Rosa belonging to the Rosaceae Family. According to fossil evidence, the rose is at least 35 million years old and has a colourful place in human history extending back to more than 5,000 years ago. It is thought that the rose began to reach other parts of the world via the trade route from its native homeland of Central Asia. Since then, the rose has been the symbol of love, beauty, war, and politics.
Since ancient times, the rose has been highly prized for its source of perfume, medicinal use and nutritional properties. In fact so much so that Ancient Greeks, Romans and Phoenecians placed as much importance on large public rose gardens as they did on wheat fields and fruit orchards.
Antik Yunan'da temizlige ve guzel kokuya cok onem veriliyordu.
Albert S. Lyons, R.Joseph Petrucelli. Medicine, An Illustrated History.
Singapur. 1987 .s. 202
Antik Yunan parfum kabi.
Paolo Enrico Arias, Max Hirmer,
Le Vase Grec.
Munchen 1960 .s. 241
Venus'un dogumu. Sandro Botticelli (1486) Mario Monteverdi, Italian Art to 1850.
The Book of Art. Milan. 1967 .s. 220.
|To capture and retain the fragrance of rose, the ancients of Egypt, Mezopotomia, India and China used the technique of maseration - a process of pressing rose petals in suitable oils to infuse them with the fragrance of rose.|
Eski Misir'da hanimlar baslarinda guzel kokulu yaglardan hazirlanmis basliklar tasiyorlardi.
Albert S. Lyons, R. Joseph Petrucelli. Medicine,
An Illustrated History. Singapur. 1987.s. 128
Eski Misir'da parfum kaplari
Lydia Mez-Mangold. de L'histoire de medicament,
Bale. 1971 .s. 17.
| Then by 3500 BC the ancients had invented the method of 'extraction - a process involving soaking rose petals in water. By 50 BC, however, the process of "catching the spirit" or otherwise known as "distilation" was discovered, paving the way for the production of pure rose water and rose oil. |
Rose oil was an essential product in demand by physicians of traditional medicine for it therapeutic benefits and women for its beautifying effects. In traditional medicine books, rose oil, rose paste and rose water are mentioned as remedies for a whole host of ailments including headaches; fever; fainting spells; stomach aches and sore eyes.
9. yuzyilda yasamis unlu hekim Razi kitabinda bircok damitma usullerinden bahsetmistir.
A History of Pharmacy in Pictures,
Parke, Davis& Company.
Razi'nin gulsuyu hazirlama tekniginden biri.
Damitma Balonu. Resim Suheyl Unver. Cerrahpasa Tip Tarihi Arsivi.
|The use of roses and rose water in Turkish culture dates back to more than 900 years but their importance in areas of therapy, cuisine, and ceremonial ocassions took a rapid rise during the reign of the the Otoman Empire.|
Gulserbeti ve macun, ziyafetlerde her an hazir bulunduruluyordu. Nusretname'den Metin And, Osmanli Tasvir Sanatlari bir Minyatur.
Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari, Istanbul 2002
Ziyafet sirasinda gul macun kabi her an hazir bulunduruluyordu.
Yukse rutbeli askerlere ziyafet; Esin Atil. Levni ve Surname. Kocbank. Istanbul 1999. sayfa 172.
Osmanli'da gulsuyu kullanimini sosyal hayatin her cephesinde goruyoruz. Gorselde carsida satici resmedilmistir; Tombak, sayi 10. 1996
Haseki Sultan; Jean Baptiste Vanmour.
Kocbank Istanbul 2003 sayfa 61
| The Rose Industry in Isparta|
The oil rose was brought to Turkey for the first time in 1870 by an immigrant and planted in Bursa, Denizli and Manisa. However, its cultivation in Isparta was not until 1888 when a local, Muftuzade Ismail Efendi, first brought oil roses from the Kizanlik region in Bulgaria and planted it in the Gulcu district. It is thought that the first rose oil production was also made by Muftuzade Ismail Efendi in 1892 using primitive distillation methods.
|It is known that rose cultivation was highly developed in the Anatolian region until WWI with rose cultivation in Isparta beginning as a result of government incentives at the time. A book on rose cultivation published by the Ministry of Trade and Agriculture contributed greatly to the development of this industry. Official records reveal over 17 million m2 of rose gardens were established at the time.|
| Prior to WWI, rose oil of Turkish origin was world renowned for it quality and purity. However, statistics reveal that during the armistice years Turkish rose oil lost its popularity to the oils of Bulgarian origin and that towards the end of the War of Independence, the number of rose gardens had decreased by 50 percent. |
With the founding of Gulbirlik in Isparta in 1953, and the establishment of rose oil and rose oil solid factories in the region, Turkish rose oil regained its demand in world markets. This led to the increase in the number of plantations across the region and today, supplies over 40% of the world rose oil need.
Rose, Rosewater - Their place in history, Therapy and Tradition. Prof. Dr. Ayten Altintas